The authorities will assess the intensity, nature and frequency of the abuses to which applicants have been subjected. The purpose is to evaluate whether the incidents can be regarded as isolated episodes, or whether there are indications that applicants will be exposed to similar serious threats in the future.
If an asylum seeker has not previously been subjected to abuse, there may be other indications that they will be subjected to serious abuse in the future.
The decisive factor in deciding if an applicant can obtain a residence permit as a refugee is whether the authorities decide that there is a real risk that they will be subjected to persecution or other serious abuses if returned to their home country.
An applicant might have experienced discrimination and harassment, but this alone is not enough to qualify for asylum – even if it causes difficulties for the individual in their home country.